Bibliography Style Guide

Our citation generator is great for automatically compiling your bibliographies, but it's still important you know the process of creating a bibliography manually, and the reasons why citing your sources is necessary.

For these reasons we have prepared the following set of guides to assist you:

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  • Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica style
  • American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics style
  • American Journal of Agricultural Economics style
  • American Journal of Botany style
  • American Journal of Human Genetics style
  • ACS Nano style
  • Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica style
  • Administrative Science Quarterly style
  • Anesthesia and Analgesia style
  • Annual Reviews (author-date) style
  • ACM SIGCHI Proceedings style
  • ACM SIGCHI Proceedings - Extended Abstract Format style
  • Acta Naturae style
  • Acta Palaeontologica Polonica style
  • Advanced Functional Materials style
  • American Chemical Society (with titles, sentence case) style
  • Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien style
  • Arthritis & Rheumatism style
  • Arzneimitteltherapie style
  • Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas - Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - FACE (Autoria abreviada. Exemplo: MENDES, J.) (Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • Australian Veterinary Journal style
  • Acta Polytechnica style
  • Alternatives to Animal Experimentation style
  • AMBIO style
  • American Journal of Political Science style
  • American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine style
  • American Phytopathological Society style
  • Anesthesiology style
  • Antarctic Science style
  • American Psychological Association 5th edition style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (single-spaced bibliography) style
  • Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research style
  • Avian Conservation and Ecology style
  • Body & Society style
  • British Journal of Anaesthesia style
  • Acta Ophthalmologica style
  • Ameghiniana style
  • American Political Science Association style
  • American Society of Mechanical Engineers style
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition style
  • Annals of the Association of American Geographers style
  • Aquatic Living Resources style
  • Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas - Universidade Federal do Paraná (Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • Association for Computational Linguistics - Conference Proceedings style
  • Biochimica et Biophysica Acta style
  • Biotropica style
  • British Journal of Political Science style
  • Acta Pharmaceutica style
  • African Zoology style
  • AIDS style
  • American Journal of Health Behavior style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (Spanish/Español) style
  • Asian Studies Review style
  • Biochemical Journal style
  • Biophysical Journal style
  • British Journal of Surgery style
  • Academy of Management Review style
  • Aging Cell style
  • Annals of Neurology style
  • Anticancer Research style
  • Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas - Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • Avian Pathology style
  • Biochemistry style
  • Acta Materialia style
  • American Chemical Society (author-date) style
  • American Journal of Plant Sciences style
  • American Mineralogist style
  • Annals of Botany style
  • Antiquity style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (Turkish) style
  • Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas (note, Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • ANPET - Congresso de Pesquisa e Ensino em Transportes (Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • Ausonius Éditions (French) style
  • Austrian Legal (German - Austria) style
  • Bioinformatics style
  • Biotechnology and Bioengineering style
  • Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences style
  • Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (author-date, German) style
  • ACM SIGGRAPH style
  • ACM SIG Proceedings ("et al." for 15+ authors) style
  • Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae (Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences) (Swedish) style
  • Allergy style
  • American Institute of Physics style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (Université de Montréal) (French - Canada) style
  • Australian Historical Studies style
  • Biochemical Society Transactions style
  • Biological Psychiatry style
  • American Chemical Society (page-first) style
  • American Chemical Society (with titles, no "et al.") style
  • American Journal of Surgical Pathology style
  • American Medical Association style
  • American Physiological Society style
  • Annales. Histoire, Sciences sociales (French) style
  • Annals of Oncology style
  • Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics style
  • Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science style
  • Applied Spectroscopy style
  • Arachne style
  • Archéologie médiévale (French) style
  • Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies style
  • Chemical Senses style
  • Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (figures and illustrations) style
  • Clay Minerals style
  • Collection du Centre Jean-Bérard (French) style
  • American Veterinary Medical Association style
  • Annual Reviews (sorted by order of appearance) style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (curriculum vitae, sorted by descending date) style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (French/Français) style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (Italian/Italiano) style
  • Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation style
  • Australian Journal of Earth Sciences style
  • Centaurus style
  • Chicago style
  • Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics style
  • BioMed Central style
  • Clinical Microbiology and Infection style
  • Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research style
  • Council of Science Editors, Citation-Name (numeric, sorted alphabetically) style
  • Decision Sciences style
  • DIN 1505-2 (numeric, German) style
  • DIN 1505-2 (numeric, sorted alphabetically, German) style
  • DNA Research style
  • Earth Surface Processes and Landforms style
  • Ecology style
  • Environment and Planning style
  • European Cells & Materials style
  • British Journal of Dermatology style
  • British Journal of Haematology style
  • Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (note, annotated bibliography) style
  • Circulation style
  • Council of Science Editors, Name-Year (author-date) style
  • Cytometry style
  • Elsevier Harvard 2 style
  • Elsevier (numeric, without titles) style
  • European Journal of Emergency Medicine style
  • European Journal of Immunology style
  • European Journal of Neuroscience style
  • Acta Neurochirurgica style
  • Advances in Complex Systems style
  • American Chemical Society (with titles) style
  • American Heart Association style
  • American Journal of Epidemiology style
  • American Medical Association (no "et al.") style
  • American Phytopathological Society (numeric) style
  • Annual Reviews (sorted alphabetically) style
  • Annual Reviews (sorted by order of appearance, without titles) style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition style
  • Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems style
  • Austral Ecology style
  • Biometrics style
  • Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research style
  • Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (full note, no Ibid.) style
  • Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry style
  • DIN 1505-2 (author-date, German) style
  • Diplo style
  • Écoscience style
  • Environmental Chemistry style
  • European Society of Cardiology style
  • Evolution style
  • Flavour and Fragrance Journal style
  • Free Radical Biology & Medicine style
  • Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae style
  • American Anthropological Association style
  • American Journal of Archaeology style
  • American Journal of Neuroradiology style
  • American Sociological Association style
  • Cellular Reprogramming style
  • Coral Reefs style
  • Corrosion style
  • Ecosystems style
  • Elsevier (numeric, with titles, sorted alphabetically) style
  • Equine Veterinary Education style
  • Equine Veterinary Journal style
  • Federation of European Microbiological Societies style
  • Fish and Fisheries style
  • Free Radical Research style
  • Geistes- und Kulturwissenschaften (Heilmann) (German) style
  • Genèses: Sciences sociales et histoire (French) style
  • Global Ecology and Biogeography style
  • Harvard - Anglia Ruskin University style
  • Harvard - Cardiff University style
  • Harvard - Durham University Business School style
  • Acta Philosophica style
  • Boreal Environment Research style
  • Bulletin of Marine Science style
  • Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (author-date, Basque) style
  • Chroniques des activités archéologiques de l'Ecole française de Rome (French) style
  • Database style
  • Diatom Research style
  • EMBO reports style
  • Engineering in Life Sciences style
  • Evolutionary Ecology Research style
  • Fachhochschule Kiel - Fachbereich Medien (German) style
  • Forest Science style
  • Geology style
  • Hypotheses in the Life Sciences style
  • ICES Journal of Marine Science style
  • Indian Journal of Medical Research style
  • Institut national de la recherche scientifique - Sciences sociales (author-date, French) style
  • American Chemical Society style
  • Advanced Engineering Materials style
  • Advanced Materials style
  • American Association for Cancer Research style
  • American Association of Petroleum Geologists style
  • American Chemical Society (with titles, page-first) style
  • American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (annotated bibliography with abstract) style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (German/Deutsch) style
  • Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - FACE (Autoria completa. Exemplo: MENDES, José) (Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • Association for Computing Machinery style
  • Australian Guide to Legal Citation style
  • Bioelectromagnetics style
  • Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters style
  • Blood style
  • Bluebook Law Review (2) style
  • British Ecological Society style
  • British Journal of Pharmacology style
  • Bulletin de la Société préhistorique française (French) style
  • Cell journals (numeric) style
  • Cell Research style
  • Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (note, no Ibid.) style
  • Currents in Biblical Research style
  • Die Bachelorarbeit (Samac et al.) (in-text, German) style
  • Elsevier Harvard (without titles) style
  • European Retail Research style
  • First Monday style
  • French Politics style
  • Russian GOST R 7.0.5-2008 (numeric) style
  • Harvard - North-West University style
  • Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences Proceedings style
  • Hochschule für Wirtschaft und Recht Berlin (German) style
  • Human Pathology style
  • Interaction Design & Architecture(s) style
  • International Journal of Electronic Commerce style
  • International Studies Association style
  • ISO-690 (numeric, French) style
  • ISO-690 (numeric, Lithuanian) style
  • Harvard - Institut für Praxisforschung (Bahr & Frackmann) (German) style
  • Harvard - Leeds Metropolitan University style
  • Harvard - University of Cape Town style
  • Harvard - University of Kent style
  • Harvard - University of Leeds style
  • ISO-690 (author-date, Czech) style
  • Israel Medical Association Journal style
  • Jahrbuch für evangelikale Theologie (German) style
  • Journal for the History of Astronomy style
  • Journal of Bone and Mineral Research style
  • Journal of Fish Diseases style
  • Journal of Internal Medicine style
  • Journal of Management Information Systems style
  • Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma style
  • American Fisheries Society style
  • Clio Medica style
  • Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift (German) style
  • Environmental & Engineering Geoscience style
  • Environmental Microbiology style
  • Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry style
  • Future Science Group style
  • Geoarchaeology style
  • Grasas y Aceites style
  • Harvard - Bath University style
  • Harvard - Newcastle University style
  • Harvard - The University of Sheffield - School of East Asian Studies style
  • Harvard - The University of Sheffield - Town and Regional Planning style
  • Harvard - University of Technology, Sydney style
  • History of the Human Sciences style
  • International Labour Organization style
  • Journal of Applied Ecology style
  • Journal of European Public Policy style
  • Journal of Field Ornithology style
  • Journal of Food Protection style
  • Journal of Molecular Endocrinology style
  • Journal of Neurophysiology style
  • Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology style
  • American Journal of Clinical Pathology style
  • BYZANTINA SYMMEIKTA style
  • Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press style
  • De Buck (Dutch) style
  • Ecology Letters style
  • Emu - Austral Ornithology style
  • Entomological Society of America style
  • European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases style
  • European Journal of Information Systems style
  • Evolutionary Anthropology style
  • Frontiers in Optics style
  • Gallia (French) style
  • Genes to Cells style
  • Global Change Biology style
  • Harvard - Staffordshire University style
  • Histoire & Mesure (French) style
  • Human Brain Mapping style
  • Infoclio (German - Switzerland) style
  • Information Systems Research style
  • Institute of Physics (numeric) style
  • International Microbiology style
  • Invertebrate Systematics style
  • ISO-690 (note, without bibliography, Czech) style
  • ISO-690 (numeric, brackets, Czech) style
  • Journal of Applied Philosophy style
  • Journal of Elections, Public Opinion & Parties style
  • Journal of Hearing Science style
  • Journal of Morphology style
  • Journal of Petrology style
  • Journal of Simulation style
  • American Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics style
  • Interdisziplinäre Zeitschrift für Technologie und Lernen (German) style
  • International Journal of Climatology style
  • International Journal of Exercise Science style
  • International Organization style
  • Investigative Radiology style
  • Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery style
  • Journal of Evolutionary Biology style
  • Journal of Forensic Sciences style
  • Journal of Infectious Diseases style
  • Journal of Nutrition style
  • Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience style
  • Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques style
  • Journal of the American Ceramic Society style
  • Journal of Tropical Ecology style
  • Journal of Vegetation Science style
  • Kindheit und Entwicklung style
  • American Journal of Primatology style
  • European Journal of Ophthalmology style
  • Freie Universität Berlin - Geographische Wissenschaften (German) style
  • Harvard - Cape Peninsula University of Technology style
  • Harvard (German/Deutsch) style
  • Health Services Research style
  • History and Theory style
  • Hydrobiologia style
  • International Journal of Cancer style
  • International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health style
  • International Journal of Wildland Fire style
  • ISO-690 (author-date, French) style
  • ISO-690 (note, no abstract, French) style
  • Journalistica (Danish) style
  • Journal of Atrial Fibrillation style
  • Journal of Avian Biology style
  • Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia style
  • Journal of Common Market Studies style
  • Journal of Computational Chemistry style
  • Journal of Hypertension style
  • Journal of Integrated OMICS style
  • Journal of Neuroscience and Neuroengineering style
  • Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science style
  • Journal of the American Water Resources Association style
  • Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis style
  • Le Mouvement Social (French) style
  • American Physics Society style
  • Fachhochschule Vorarlberg (alphanumeric, German) style
  • France (tous les auteurs, auteur-date, French) style
  • Genetics style
  • HAND style
  • Harvard - Oxford Brookes University style
  • Harvard - University of West London style
  • Human Mutation style
  • International Journal of Audiology style
  • Invertebrate Biology style
  • ISO-690 (author-date, Slovak) style
  • Jahrbuch der Österreichischen Byzantinischen Gesellschaft style
  • Journal of Alzheimer's Disease style
  • Journal of Glaciology style
  • Journal of Human Evolution style
  • Journal of Lipid Research style
  • Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society style
  • Le tapuscrit (École des hautes études en sciences sociales) (note, French) style
  • American Society for Microbiology style
  • Cuadernos de Filología Clásica. Estudios Griegos e Indoeuropeos (autor-año, Spanish) style
  • Current Opinion journals style
  • Épidémiologie et Santé Animale style
  • European Union Interinstitutional Style Guide style
  • Fertility and Sterility style
  • France (auteurs et al., numérotation, French) style
  • Geografie Sborník ČGS (Czech) style
  • Harvard - Oxford Brookes University - Faculty of Health and Life Sciences style
  • Harvard - Swinburne University of Technology style
  • Harvard - The University of Northampton style
  • Heredity style
  • Human Reproduction style
  • IEEE (with URL) style
  • Infoclio (sans majuscules, French) style
  • ISO-690 (numeric, parentheses, Czech) style
  • The Journal of Biological Chemistry style
  • Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine style
  • Journal of Rheumatology style
  • Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons style
  • Journal of the American College of Cardiology style
  • Journal of the Association for Information Systems style
  • Journal of Zoology style
  • Lethaia style
  • Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation 7th edition (McGill Guide) style
  • Annals of Applied Biology style
  • Art History style
  • BioEssays style
  • KTH Royal Institute of Technology - School of Computer Science and Communication style
  • Journal of Paleontology style
  • Journal of Roman Archaeology (A) style
  • Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery style
  • Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute style
  • Language in Society style
  • Les Journées de la Recherche Porcine (French) style
  • Limnology and Oceanography style
  • London South Bank University (numeric) style
  • Manuel canadien de la référence juridique 7e édition (Guide McGill, French - Canada) style
  • Microscopy and Microanalysis style
  • Middle East Critique style
  • Frontiers medical journals style
  • Harvard - King's College London style
  • Harvard - University of Birmingham style
  • Human Resource Management Journal style
  • Immunological Reviews style
  • Infoclio (petites majuscules, French) style
  • International Conference on Information Systems Development style
  • Journal of Archaeological Research style
  • Journal of Pollination Ecology style
  • Journal of Visualized Experiments style
  • Karger journals (author-date) style
  • KTH Royal Institute of Technology - School of Computer Science and Communication (Swedish) style
  • LexisNexis Québec (Guide Lluelles modifié, French - Canada) style
  • Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise style
  • Métropolitiques (French) style
  • Moore Theological College style
  • New Zealand Veterinary Journal style
  • Occupational Medicine style
  • BioTechniques style
  • Building Structure (Chinese) style
  • Carcinogenesis style
  • Cell style
  • Chest style
  • Chinese Std GB/T 7714-2005 (author-date, Chinese) style
  • Chinese Std GB/T 7714-2005 (numeric, Chinese) style
  • Clinical Otolaryngology style
  • Conservation Biology style
  • Current Protocols journals style
  • Ear and Hearing style
  • Économie et Statistique (French) style
  • Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata style
  • Ethics (for book reviews) style
  • Ethnobiology and Conservation style
  • European Journal of Pain style
  • European Journal of Political Research style
  • Eye style
  • Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment style
  • Geological Magazine style
  • Cite Them Right 10th edition - Harvard style
  • Harvard - Manchester Metropolitan University style
  • Harvard - University of Gloucestershire style
  • Harvard - University of Sunderland style
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases style
  • Irish Historical Studies style
  • ISO-690 (full note, Slovak) style
  • Journal of Basic Microbiology style
  • Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology style
  • Journal of Investigative Dermatology style
  • Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing style
  • Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association style
  • Journal of the American Society of Nephrology style
  • Journal of Transport Geography style
  • Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine style
  • Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie (German) style
  • Language style
  • Modern Humanities Research Association 3rd edition (note with bibliography) style
  • Modern Language Association 7th edition (German/Deutsch) style
  • Molecular Biology of the Cell style
  • Nature Publishing Group Vancouver style
  • Natureza & Conservação (Brazilian Journal of Nature Conservation) (Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • Navigation style
  • O.W. Barth Verlag (German) style
  • Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy style
  • PeerJ style
  • Physiological and Biochemical Zoology style
  • Politische Vierteljahresschrift (German) style
  • Annals of Biomedical Engineering style
  • Annual Review of Medicine style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (Provost) (French - Canada) style
  • Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas (Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • Avian Diseases style
  • Babes-Bolyai University - Faculty of Orthodox Theology (Romanian) style
  • Bluebook Inline style
  • BMJ style
  • British Journal of Cancer style
  • Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (full note) style
  • Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (note) style
  • Clays and Clay Minerals style
  • Deutsches Archäologisches Institut style
  • DIN 1505-2 (alphanumeric, German) style
  • Ecological Entomology style
  • Emerald journals (Harvard) style
  • European Journal of Human Genetics style
  • Harvard style
  • Harvard - City University London style
  • Harvard - Gesellschaft für Bildung und Forschung in Europa (German) style
  • Health Policy and Planning style
  • Histoire@Politique. Politique, culture, société (French) style
  • Insectes Sociaux style
  • International Journal of Epidemiology style
  • International Union of Crystallography journals style
  • Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy style
  • Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering style
  • Journal of Dental Research style
  • Journal of Neurosurgery style
  • Journal of Perinatal Medicine style
  • Journal of Separation Science style
  • Journal of the American Association of Laboratory Animal Science style
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society style
  • Les Journées de la Recherche Avicole (French) style
  • Medical Physics style
  • Mineralogical Magazine style
  • Molecular Microbiology style
  • Nature Neuroscience (brief communications) style
  • Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research style
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America style
  • SAGE Harvard style
  • Guide des références pour la rédaction juridique 7e édition (Guide Lluelles, French - Canada) style
  • Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz style
  • Moorlands College style
  • Nature style
  • Nature (no superscript) style
  • New Zealand Plant Protection style
  • Northeastern Naturalist style
  • Organization style
  • Oxford Art Journal style
  • Pediatric Research style
  • Phyllomedusa style
  • Plant Biology style
  • Polish Legal (Polish) style
  • Preslia - The Journal of the Czech Botanical Society style
  • ACM SIG Proceedings ("et al." for 3+ authors) style
  • Advances in Alzheimer's Disease style
  • American Geophysical Union style
  • American Journal of Medical Genetics style
  • American Medical Association (sorted alphabetically) style
  • American Medical Association (no URL) style
  • American Meteorological Society style
  • American Society of Civil Engineers style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (no DOIs, no issue numbers) style
  • Arachnology style
  • American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America style
  • BibTeX generic citation style style
  • Biological Journal of the Linnean Society style
  • Biological Reviews style
  • Bluebook Law Review style
  • Brazilian Journal of Botany style
  • Cell Transplantation style
  • Critical Care Medicine style
  • Deutsche Gesellschaft für Psychologie (German) style
  • Die Bachelorarbeit (Samac et al.) (note, German) style
  • Drug Testing and Analysis style
  • Early Medieval Europe style
  • Ekonomie a Management (Czech) style
  • Elsevier Harvard (with titles) style
  • FOLD&R (Fasti On Line Documents & Research) style
  • France (auteurs et al., auteur-date, French) style
  • G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics style
  • Geopolitics style
  • Harvard - AGPS (Australia) style
  • Harvard - Imperial College London style
  • Harvard - London South Bank University style
  • Harvard - Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador (Spanish) style
  • Harvard - University of Greenwich style
  • Harvard - University of the West of England (Bristol) style
  • Hong Kong Journal of Radiology style
  • Human-Wildlife Interactions style
  • IICA-CATIE (Spanish) style
  • International Journal of Humanoid Robotics style
  • International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics style
  • International Journal of Sport Medicine style
  • Inter-Research Science Center style
  • ISO-690 (author-date, English) style
  • ISO-690 (author-date, Spanish) style
  • Javnost - The Public style
  • Journal of Analytical Toxicology style
  • Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology style
  • Journal of Management style
  • Journal of Medical Genetics style
  • Journal of Medical Internet Research style
  • Journal of Neurotrauma style
  • Korean Journal of Anesthesiology style
  • Leviathan (German) style
  • Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute style
  • National Library of Medicine (grant proposals with PMCID/PMID) style
  • Neurology style
  • Oikos style
  • Pädagogische Hochschule Vorarlberg (German) style
  • Podzemná voda (Slovak) style
  • Rhodora style
  • SPIE Conference Proceedings style
  • Springer Basic (numeric, brackets) style
  • Surgical Neurology International style
  • The American Journal of Psychiatry style
  • Hochschule der Medien Stuttgart (German) style

Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition

Summary:

This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in 2017.

Contributors: Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee, Ryan Murphy, Vanessa Iacocca, Ryan Schnurr
Last Edited: 2018-01-31 02:26:18

Please note that while these resources reflect the most recent updates in the 17th edition of The Chicago Manual of Style concerning documentation practices, you can review a full list of updates concerning usage, technology, professional practice, etc. at The Chicago Manual of Style Online.

To see a side-by-side comparison of the three most widely used citation styles, including a chart of all CMOS citation guidelines, see the Citation Style Chart.

Introduction

The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) covers a variety of topics from manuscript preparation and publication to grammar, usage, and documentation and has been lovingly called the “editors’ bible.” The material in this resource focuses primarily on one of the two CMOS documentation styles: the Notes-Bibliography System (NB), which is used by those in literature, history, and the arts. The other documentation style, the Author-Date System, is nearly identical in content but slightly different in form and is preferred in the social sciences.

In addition to consulting The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.) for more information, students may also find it useful to consult Kate L. Turabian's Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (8th ed.). This manual, which presents what is commonly known as the "Turabian" citation style, follows the two CMOS patterns of documentation but offers slight modifications suited to student texts.

Notes and Bibliography (NB) in Chicago style

The Chicago NB system is often used in the humanities and provides writers with a system for referencing their sources through footnote or endnote citation in their writing and through bibliography pages. It also offers writers an outlet for commenting on those cited sources. The NB system is most commonly used in the discipline of history.

The proper use of the NB system can protect writers from accusations of plagiarism, which is the intentional or accidental uncredited use of source material created by others. Most importantly, properly using the NB system builds credibility by demonstrating accountability to source material.

If you are asked to use the Chicago NB format, be sure to consult The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.). Students should also refer to A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (8th ed.). Both are available in most writing centers and reference libraries and in bookstores.

Introduction to Notes

In the NB system, you should include a note (endnote or footnote) each time you use a source, whether through a direct quote or through a paraphrase or summary. Footnotes will be added at the end of the page on which the source is referenced, and endnotes will be compiled at the end of each chapter or at the end of the entire document.

In either case, a superscript number corresponding to a note with the bibliographic information for that source should be placed in the text following the end of the sentence or clause in which the source is referenced.

If a work includes a bibliography, then it is not necessary to provide full publication details in notes. However, if a bibliography is not included with a work, the first note for each source should include all relevant information about the source: author’s full name, source title, and facts of publication. If you cite the same source again, or if a bibliography is included in the work, the note need only include the surname of the author, a shortened form of the title (if more than four words), and page number(s). However, in a work that does not include a bibliography, it is recommended that the full citation be repeated when it is first used in a new chapter.

In contrast to earlier editions of CMOS, if you cite the same source two or more times consecutively, CMOS recommends using shortened citations. In a work with a bibliography, the first reference should use a shortened citation which includes the author’s name, the source title, and the page number(s), and consecutive references to the same work may omit the source title and simply include the author and page number. Although discouraged by CMOS, if you cite the same source and page number(s) from a single source two or more times consecutively, it is also possible to utilize the word “Ibid.,” an abbreviated form of the Latin ibidem, which means “in the same place,” as the corresponding note. If you use the same source but a different page number, the corresponding note should use “Ibid.” followed by a comma and the new page number(s).

In the NB system, the footnote or endnote itself begins with the appropriate full-sized number, followed by a period and then a space. 

Introduction to Bibliographies

In the NB system, the bibliography provides an alphabetical list of all sources used in a given work. This page, most often titled Bibliography, is usually placed at the end of the work preceding the index. It should include all sources cited within the work and may sometimes include other relevant sources that were not cited but provide further reading.

Although bibliographic entries for various sources may be formatted differently, all included sources (books, articles, Web sites, etc.) are arranged alphabetically by author’s last name. If no author or editor is listed, the title or, as a last resort, a descriptive phrase may be used.

Though useful, a bibliography is not required in works that provide full bibliographic information in the notes. 

Common Elements

All entries in the bibliography will include the author (or editor, compiler, translator), title, and publication information.

Author’s Names

The author’s name is inverted in the bibliography, placing the last name first and separating the last name and first name with a comma; for example, John Smith becomes Smith, John. (If an author is not listed first, this applies to compilers, translators, etc.)

Titles

Titles of books and journals are italicized. Titles of articles, chapters, poems, etc. are placed in quotation marks.

Publication Information

The year of publication is listed after the publisher or journal name.

Punctuation

In a bibliography, all major elements are separated by periods.

For more information and specific examples, see the sections on Books and Periodicals.

Please note that this OWL resource provides basic information regarding the formatting of entries used in the bibliography. For more information about Selected Bibliographies, Annotated Bibliographies, and Bibliographic Essays, please consult Chapter 14.61 of The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.).

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