Choose the right greeting and sign off
It's important to start and end your letter on a strong note so that the recipient will respond favourably to your message. Choosing the right greeting and sign off will go a long way toward that goal.
This page offers suggestions for good ways to open and close your letters.
Formal or informal?
Before you begin writing, think about why you're writing your letter and who will be receiving it. The degree of formality in your letter (formal, semi-formal, or informal) will determine what kind of greeting and sign off you should use. Most business correspondence (e.g., cover letters for job applications, insurance claims, letters of complaint) should be formal. Business letters whose recipient you know very well (e.g., a former boss) may be semi-formal. Most personal correspondence (e.g., informal invitations, letters of condolence) should be informal.
In a formal letter, your greeting (or salutation) should strike a warm yet respectful tone. The most common greeting is Dear followed by the recipient's name.
Formal and semi-formal
For formal letters, address the recipient with a courtesy title (i.e., Mr, Mrs, Miss, Ms, Dr) followed by the person's last name. Be sure to confirm what title the recipient prefers before writing your letter. If you are unsure of a woman's title preference, use Ms. If you do not know the recipient’s gender, you may use the person's full name and omit the title. Formal greetings end in a colon.
Dear Ms Jones:
Dear Taylor Jones:
You should strive to address your letter to a specific person. Letters that aren't addressed to a specific person are less likely to be read. If you do not know the name of the recipient, use Dear Sir or Madam or To whom it may concern.
Semi-formal greetings follow the same format as formal greetings; however, you may refer the recipient by his or her first name.
Greetings for informal letters should similarly convey friendliness and courtesy. But because informal letters are reserved for personal correspondence between friends and family members, you have a greater degree of latitude in how you phrase your greeting. You may choose to use a more conversational tone. Some writers substitute Hello or Hi for Dear. Informal greetings end in a comma rather than a colon.
In your final sign off (or closing), you should aim to be brief and courteous. As compared to the greeting, you have more options of phrases to use at your disposal. Some common sign offs for letters of all degrees of formality include Best regards, Sincerely, and Yours truly. In all letters, the sign off should end with a comma.
Formal and semi-formal
In formal and semi-formal letters, it's best to stick with traditional sign offs, such as those listed in the previous paragraph. Avoid using sign offs, such as Love, that imply a high degree of intimacy between you and the recipient. Semi-formal letters often use a truncated version of formal sign offs. Some formal and semi-formal variants of sign offs are listed below:
|Best regards||Best or Regards|
As with greetings, sign offs in informal letters tend to have a more conversational tone than those in formal or semi-formal letters. Some common sign offs for informal letters include Love, Hugs and kisses, and Your friend. For letters to close friends, you may even use a personal catchphrase. You may also choose a phrase that relates directly to the content of your letter. For instance, if you are writing a letter of support to a friend undergoing a personal crisis, you might write In solidarity.
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You didn't get the service you expected.
You spent hours drafting a grant proposal that received no funding.
You were put on hold three times.
Do any of these complaints sound familiar?
Yes, indeed, life is sometimes about not getting what you want. Life is full of disappointments, but sometimes these disappointments are so great that they warrant further scrutiny. Rather than act like a spoiled child, ranting and raving, wouldn't it be nice to be able to write a beautifully constructed letter of complaint?
In the current age of "instant reactions," where a hastily constructed email or a high-pitched, heat-of-the-moment telephone conversation can cause more harm than good and will often get you nowhere, a complaint letter seems to carry more weight. However, writing such a letter is seldom easy. Luckily, we're here to help and will even provide an example complaint letter for your reference.
Organize your letter of complaint to achieve clarity
Before you sit down to actually write the complaint letter, jot down the facts of the case. These facts might include the date, time, and location of the incident, and the names of the personnel involved. Then briefly write down what went wrong and what impact (emotional, financial) it has had on you.
The layout of a complaint letter
Writing a letter of complaint is partly about getting an annoyance off your chest (think of it as therapy) and partly about seeking redress for a wrongdoing. To achieve both ends successfully, adhere to the following three-step sequence:
Step 1: Clearly state the facts of your case/causes for your complaint.
Step 2: Outline/discuss why you are so unhappy/upset.
Step 3: In some instances, it may be appropriate to set out your thoughts on a remedy/fix that would be amenable to you and/or others; in other instances, it is best to leave the solution in the hands of the perpetrator.
Keep your complaint professional
This should be a formal letter – after all, this is a serious matter, and you want it treated as such. One-inch margins are used throughout. A professional letter typically uses an easy-to-read and plain typeface (Arial or Times New Roman) in 11 or 12 point. Avoid any fancy typefaces or small point sizes, as they send the wrong message.
You should include your address in the top left (header) of the letter. The address of the company/person you are writing to—in this example, "That Awful Company"—should appear on the left. It is best if you can address your letter to a particular person within an organization. If you do not have a name, Dear Sir/Madam is acceptable in the salutation line.
Don't forget to end your complaint letter with a closing salutation such as "Yours sincerely" or "Sincerely" and to leave sufficient space for your signature (usually three lines). Last, be sure your letter is free from grammar and spelling errors by sending it for proofreading by the professionals at Scribendi.
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