What are Douglass's views on Christianity?
Douglass does not hold back on his views regarding the slaveowners' interpretation of Christianity. When writing about Thomas Auld, he explained that his master had experienced a religious conversion but did not change for the better; rather, he found greater sanction for his cruelty through religion. Covey was also a religious man, but readers of the autobiography learned about his deceit, treachery, and brutality. At Freeland's farm Douglass remarked how pleased he was that the man pretended no religion; according to him, "religious slaveholders are the worst. I have ever found them the meanest and the basest, the most cruel and cowardly, of all others" (57). Such slaveowners were capable of gross misdeeds and blasphemy but pretended that they were paragons of virtue. In the Appendix, Douglass clarified his views on Christianity. He explained that he was not irreligious, but that the Christianity of Christ was far different than the Christianity of the southern whites. They were above all hypocrites and traitors to the word of God. Throughout the work it is clear that Douglass locates the true faith in the black community, where it was purer and unadulterated by racism and evil.
What are the elements of traditional African religion and dialect in the autobiography?
Although Christianity has a far larger presence in the autobiography than traditional African religion, it is nonetheless present in the work. It is present in the wild, raw, and emotional outpourings of song by the slaves in the field and forest. It is exemplified by Sandy Jenkins, the slave who counsels Douglass to carry a special root at his side so he will go unmolested by Covey. Jenkins tells him, "he had carried it for years; and since he had done so, he had never received a blow, and never expected to while he carried it." Douglass was skeptical but took the root with him. In the end, the root was more of a symbol than a literal object to ward off violence; it symbolized the power of African tradition and community in resisting the bonds of slavery. African dialect is expressly ignored by Douglass in the writing of his work, but the weight of accumulated oral traditions and speech underlie the work. Many of the stories Douglass related from his younger days could only come from the stories told by slaves in their own voices. Thus, African religion and the dialect and stories of the slaves are present in the Narrative, albeit in a limited fashion.
What are Douglass's strengths?
Douglass is a man who seems to possess nearly all strengths and no weaknesses. The former include humility, compassion, kindness, sympathy, intelligence, patience, fortitude, and wisdom. He derived great pleasure in his work with others and often put them above himself. He was not aggressive; even in his "fight" with Covey he did not actually fight back but simply resisted Covey's attack and would not let him beat him. He was tireless in his devotion to abolition; he toured the North and gave speeches, wrote journal articles, and told his story time and time again. He gave a voice to those who were still enmeshed in the net of slavery. He was a brilliant writer and speaker; he utilized skillful rhetorical devices and impressed all who listened to him. He was assiduous and diligent, never giving up on things that were important to him: learning how to read and write, escaping from slavery, and helping his black brethren. He was also selfless, devoting himself to the cause of women's suffrage in his later years. All in all, Frederick Douglass was one of the most remarkable Americans that ever lived.
What are the various ways in which Douglass expresses the horrors of slavery?
Douglass's autobiography reveals a multitude of ways in which African Americans suffered under the yoke of slavery. They did not know their own birthdays or much other information about their past. They rarely knew their family members or were torn from them without warning. They were frequently without enough food, clothing, or sleep. They were beaten mercilessly and cruelly, sometimes when they had committed no offense. Some women were raped and forced to bear the children of their master. Some were killed or maimed. They were forbidden from attaining any sort of education for fear that they would become unmanageable, while slaveholders maintained ignorance was also good for the slaves, who would be unhappy with knowledge. Douglass's grandmother, who had cared for several generations of the Anthony family, was turned out into the forest to die alone. Slave Demby was killed by Mr. Gore for refusing to come out of the river to finish his beating. Slaves had no legal rights; therefore, there was no way to prosecute anyone who killed one of them. They had to conceal their true feelings and lie about their happiness in order not to be killed. They were considered assets of the estate and valued just like animals. Overall, Douglass's text is rife with damning evidence about the terrible nature of slavery in America.
What are the tone and style Douglass employs in his prose?
Douglass is a master of the written word. He employs metaphor, pathos, wit, irony, and other literary devices. His tone is placid and removed; he relates the most horrifying events in a stable, straight-forward fashion. Sometimes a note of melodrama seeps into the text, but most of the time Douglass is cool and intellectual. He jumps between past and present, sometimes relating personal stories and sometimes reflecting on society and slavery as a whole. There is little dialogue present, which helps to elevate the text from personal narrative to historical document. His prose flows well and is lucidly rendered. He has an excellent command of language and presents an elevated, intellectual style throughout - which aided his cause to refute slavery's lie that African-Americans were not capable of intelligent thought.
What are Douglass's perceptions of the North?
Douglass was very surprised at what he found in New Bedford. He had expected that the people in the North would be no different than those who did not own slaves in the South - they would be poor, quaint, and live humbly. He assumed that only those who owned slaves could be rich and comfortable. However, New Bedford subverted his expectations. There were large and well-kept ships in the harbor, crowded warehouses of goods, and clean houses. The people were well-mannered, intelligent, and hardworking. Each man "seemed to understand his work, and went at it with a sober, yet cheerful earnestness" (78). There were many churches, all lovely and shining. Gardens populated the city. The residents seemed happier and healthier than those who resided in Maryland. The man with whom Douglass resided for a time was not a wealthy slaveowner, but had a better table and was more moral, religious, and politically-informed than nine-tenths of southern slaveowners. Douglass marveled at what he observed. However, things in the North were not perfect; he experienced prejudice in the calking business and could not find work. He was reduced to taking odd jobs. Thus, the North was not free from racism but was a much more pleasant place in which to dwell.
How does Douglass attain literacy and what does this ability do for him?
Mrs. Auld begins to teach Douglass his ABCs but is thwarted by her husband, who warns that the young slave will become unmanageable and unfit to be a slave if he enters the world of literacy. Hearing this, Douglass immediately resolves to learn to read. He accomplishes this by befriending the young white Baltimore street boys and snatching lessons from them in his free time. He attained a copy of the The Columbian Orator and devoured its contents - which inspired him with its anti-slavery tales. As for learning how to write, he studied the letters at the shipyard and worked in his master's son's copybooks when the family was not around. Literacy gave Douglass exactly what Master Auld had feared: autonomy, discontent, and the yearning to be free. When Douglass was literate he was no longer content to be in the bonds of servitude any longer. He became restless and agitated. However, literacy also gave him the ability to create relationships with his fellow slaves and to serve them. At Freeland's farm he gave lessons to nearly forty slaves, improving their lives immeasurably. Literacy was Douglass's first step on the road to freedom.
Why are William Lloyd Garrison's and Wendell Phillips's preface and letter, respectively, included at the beginning of the Narrative?
As a slave, Douglass's credibility was often questioned by reviewers. Antebellum slaves narratives often faced a test of their veracity. Two scandals in the early 1800s revealed slave narratives that were fabricated. Many events of Douglass's narrative would face scrutiny. Thus, noted white abolitionists Garrison and Phillips were enlisted by Douglass to add a preface and a letter; their doing so added legitimacy and credibility to the narrative. Both men were prominent abolitionists active in the American Anti-Slavery Society. Garrison wrote of how even though Maryland was not as barbarous in its slavery as other southern states, Douglass's work illuminated how bad it could still be. He also wrote of how much he admired and was inspired by the slave. Phillips wrote of how he knew Douglass personally and that the narrative was true in all of its particulars. Justice was done through the account. Douglass also cemented the veracity of his account by placing a daguerreotype of himself and his signature on the book's frontispiece. Most dramatically, he sent a copy to Thomas Auld and challenged him to publicly refute it.
How does Douglass's abolitionism begin and develop?
Douglass first hears the term "abolition" when he is living in Baltimore. Intrigued, the young slave tries to puzzle out the meaning. He eventually succeeds when he attains some of the city newspapers and reads about the current political endeavors to end the slavery in Washington, DC. He writes that the words "abolition" and "abolitionist" were attractive to him forever afterward. He read of emancipation in The Columbian Orator. It was not until he moved to New Bedford after he escaped slavery, however, that he was really able to embrace the abolitionist ideology and cause. He began reading William Lloyd Garrison's "The Liberator," writing "the paper became my meat and drink. My soul was set all on fire. Its sympathy for my brethren in bonds...sent a thrill of joy through my soul..." (80). At the end of the text Douglass explains that he was attending an anti-slavery convention in Nantucket when he was asked to speak. He nervously took the stage and began orating. This, he wrote, began his long career in "pleading the cause of my brethren" (80).
How does Douglass evolve from a boy and a slave to a fully-realized man and human being?
There are several significant moments in Frederick Douglass's life. First, he was chosen from among several eligible slave children to move to Baltimore. If he had not moved to that bustling city full of opportunities for greater freedom it is doubtful that he would have turned into the famed orator and reformer. Secondly, he realized that learning how to read and write would catapult him from ignorance and darkness to knowledge and illumination. Through expanding his mind and attaining a full realization of his capabilities, he realized he was not meant to be a slave and endeavored to free himself from bondage. Thirdly, at Covey's farm he finally stood up for himself and resisted Covey's brutal and capricious beatings. This took him from slave to man; his self fully-realized. Finally, to cement the gains earned by literacy and resistance, Douglass escaped from the oppressive land of the South where he was forever to be in servitude. The physical act of moving North was the final climax in the Narrative. Douglass was a free man, with both of the words "free" and "man" being significant.
Below you will find three outstanding thesis statements / paper topics for “The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass; An American Slave, Told by Himself” that can be used as essay starters. All five incorporate at least one of the themes found in “Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass” and are broad enough so that it will be easy to find textual support, yet narrow enough to provide a focused clear thesis statement. These thesis statements for “Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass” offer a summary of different elements that could be important in an essay but you are free to add your own analysis and understanding of the plot or themes to them. Using the essay topics below in conjunction with the list of important quotes from “The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass” at the bottom of the page, you should have no trouble connecting with the text and writing an excellent paper.For background, here is an excellent extended analysis and summary of Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass
Thesis Statement / Essay Topic #1: The Paradox of Education in “Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass"
The power of education in “Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass" is one of the most important themes in the entire work, but it is not a theme with a consistent meaning. Although Frederick Douglass understands that the only path to freedom, both for himself and fellow slaves, is through learning to read, write, and have an educational base to build on, he is at the same time disgusted with education because it causes him to understand the full extent of the horrors of slavery. At one point, he states, “It [education] opened my eyes to the horrible pit, but offered no ladder upon which to get out" (47). With this important quote as your starting point, examine the shifting meaning and importance of education in “Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass" and consider if Douglass ultimately views it is the most important thing or as something that it is fraught with danger and disappointment. For more assistance with this topic, check out the article “The Incompatibility of Education and Slavery”Thesis Statement / Essay Topic #2: Representations of Christianity and Religion in “Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass"
Just as education is presented as a paradox in “Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglas" so too is the issue of religion and Christianity. On the one hand, religion is a saving grace to many of the slaves and they take great joy in participating in religious activities, songs, and other forms of worship. On the other hand, there is a false form of Christianity, one that is practiced by the white people. This is the kind of religion or Christianity that says one thing, yet in practice does another—perfect hypocrisy. For this essay, examine (using characters such as Mr. Covey, for instance) the two forms of religion in “Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass; An American Slave" and consider what points Douglass is trying to make by showing the duality of Christianity. For more assistance with this topic, check out the article “Representations of Christianity in The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass“
Thesis Statement / Essay Topic #3: The Purpose of “The Narrative of The Life of Frederick Douglass
Certainly, one of the purposes of “The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass is to relate a personal story about slavery and the way one man could rise above it and make something of himself, but there are other purposes this text would have served, particularly during Fredrick Douglass’ lifetime. Since he was one of the few ex-slaves who was given ample opportunity to speak publicly about his experiences, often to white audiences (who were generally abolitionists) this was also a way for him to get across the pure cruelty of slavery as an institution to a captive audience. Such a forum allowed him to speak directly to whites, particularly in the North, about what was happening in the South and the treatment the average slave was prone to. For this essay, look for examples of how Douglass might have used stories of slavery to influence those involved in the Northern abolitionist movement. Also, the use of violence in “The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass" particularly against women (rape) would be useful, especially considering his stories were being told to whites, including white women. Another good starting point might be to look at ways Douglass compared whites with blacks in the south. Out of all three thesis statements for “The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass" listed here, this would be your best opportunity for a very long essay or a research paper that integrates historical facts and information.
** For an excellent essay/article discussing some of the most prevalent themes in “The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, click here**
For background, here is an excellent extended analysis and summary of Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass
This list of important quotations from “The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass” will help you work with the essay topics and thesis statements above by allowing you to support your claims. All of the important quotes from “The Narrative of the Life of Fredrick Douglas” listed here correspond, at least in some way, to the paper topics above and by themselves can give you great ideas for an essay by offering quotes about other themes, symbols, imagery, and motifs than those already mentioned. All quotes from “The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass” contain page numbers as well. Look at the bottom of the page to identify which edition of the text they are referring to.
“No words, no tears, no prayers from his gory victim, seemed to move his iron heart from its bloody purpose. The louder she screamed, the harder he whipped; and where the blood ran fastest, there he whipped the longest" (11).
“I do not remember to have ever met a slave who could tell his birthday. They seldom come nearer to it than planting-time… A want of information concerning my own [birthday] was a source of unhappiness to me even during childhood. The white children could tell their ages, I could not tell why I ought to be deprived of the same privilege" (13).
, “Slavery proved as injurious to her as it did to me. When I was there, she was a pious, warm, and tender-hearted woman. There was no sorrow or suffering for which she did not a tear…Slavery soon proved its ability to divest her of these heavenly qualities" (16).
“She [his mother] was long gone before I knew anything about it… I received the tidings of her death with much the same emotions I should have probably felt at the death of stranger" (20).
“if their increase will do no other good, it will do away with the force of the arguments, that god cursed Ham, and therefore American slavery is right. If the lineal descendants of Ham are alone to be scripturally enslaved, it is certain that slavery at the south must soon become unscriptural…" (24).
I speak advisedly when I say this—that killing a slave, or any other colored person in Talbot County, Maryland, is not treated as a crime, either by the courts or the community" (26).
“I did not, when a slave, understand the deep meaning of those rude and apparently incoherent songs. I was myself within the circle; so that I neither saw nor heard as those without might see or hear" (29).
“We were all ranked together at the valuation. Men and women, old and young, married and single, were ranked with horses, sheep and swine…all holding the same rank in the scale of being and were all subjected to the same narrow examination" (51).
“I assert most unhesitatingly, that the religion of the South is a mere covering for the most horrid crimes—a justifier of the most appalling barbarity…a shelter under…which the darkest, foulest, grossest, and most infernal deeds of slaveholders find the strongest protection" (86)
Source: Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave: Written by Himself (ed. John Blassingame) Yale University Press, 2001.