1. Õsterberg Esa, “Finland,” in Alcohol and Temperance in Modern History: An International Encyclopedia, vol 1, ed. Jack S. Blocker Jr, David M. Fahey, and Ian R. Tyrrell (Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-Clio, 2003), 240–243; Sturla Nordlund, “Norway,” in Alcohol and Temperance in Modern History, vol 2, 458–463; William Lahey, “Provincial Prohibition (Canada), in Alcohol and Temperance in Modern History, vol 2, 496–499; Daniel J. Malleck, “Federal Prohibition (Canada),” in Alcohol and Temperance in Modern History, vol 1, 229; Laura L. Phillips, Bolsheviks and the Bottle: Drink and Worker Culture in St. Petersburg, 1900–1920 (Dekalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2000).
2. Pegram Thomas R., Battling Demon Rum: The Struggle for a Dry America, 1800–1933 (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1998); Jack S. Blocker Jr, American Temperance Movements: Cycles of Reform (Boston: Twayne, 1989), 106–129; W. J. Rorabaugh, “Reexamining the Prohibition Amendment,” Yale Journal of Law and the Humanities 8 (1996): 285–294; Ian Tyrrell, “The US Prohibition Experiment: Myths, History and Implications,” Addiction 92 (1997): 1405–1409.
3. Tyrrell Ian R., Sobering Up: From Temperance to Prohibition in Antebellum America, 1800–1860 (Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1979), 89–90 and passim; Jack S. Blocker Jr, Retreat From Reform: The Prohibition Movement in the United States, 1890–1913 (Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1976), 83; Blocker, American Temperance Movements, 24–25; Edward J. Wheeler, Prohibition: The Principle, the Policy, and the Party (New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1889), 39–49, 57–66.
4. Blocker, American Temperance Movements, 21–27, 69–70; Tyrrell, Sobering Up, 135–145, 227–245; K. Austin Kerr, Organized for Prohibition: A New History of the Anti-Saloon League (New Haven, Conn: Yale University Press, 1985), 35–138; Anne-Marie E. Szymanski, Pathways to Prohibition: Radicals, Moderates, and Social Movement Outcomes (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2003); Sarah W. Tracy, Alcoholism in America: From Reconstruction to Prohibition (Baltimore, Md: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005).
5. Silverman Joan L., “I’ll Never Touch Another Drop”: Images of Alcohol and Temperance in American Popular Culture, 1874–1919 [PhD dissertation] (New York: New York University, 1979), 338–340, and “The Birth of a Nation: Prohibition Propaganda,” Southern Quarterly19 (1981): 23–30.
6. Timberlake James H., Prohibition and the Progressive Movement, 1900–1920 (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1963), 39–66; Denise Herd, “Ideology, History and Changing Models of Liver Cirrhosis Epidemiology,” British Journal of Addiction 87 (1992): 1113–1126; Brian S. Katcher, “The Post-Repeal Eclipse in Knowledge About the Harmful Effects of Alcohol,” Addiction 88 (June 1993): 729–744.
7. Levine Harry Gene, “The Discovery of Addiction: Changing Conceptions of Habitual Drunkenness in America,” Journal of Studies on Alcohol39 (January 1978): 161–162. [PubMed]
8. Zimmerman Jonathan, Distilling Democracy: Alcohol Education in America’s Public Schools, 1880–1925 (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1999).
9. Murdock Catherine Gilbert, Domesticating Drink: Women, Men, and Alcohol in America, 1870–1940 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998). For studies of saloon culture, see Madelon Powers, Faces Along the Bar: Lore and Order in the Workingman’s Saloon, 1870–1920 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998); Craig Heron, Booze: A Distilled History (Toronto: Between the Lines, 2003), 105–121; Perry Duis, The Saloon: Public Drinking in Chicago and Boston, 1880–1920 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1983), 172–197; Elaine Frantz Parsons, Manhood Lost: Fallen Drunkards and Redeeming Women in the 19th-Century United States (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003).
10. Local option, through which many areas in states lacking prohibition statutes were rendered “dry,” of course affected only the sale of liquor within the local jurisdiction; it could not, nor did it attempt to, prevent local drinkers from importing alcohol from wet areas, either by bringing it themselves or through mail order. Pegram, Battling Demon Rum, 141–142.
11. Hamm Richard F., Shaping the Eighteenth Amendment: Temperance Reform, Legal Culture, and the Polity, 1880–1920 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995), 56–91, 212–226.
12. Szymanski, Pathways to Prohibition, 100–121, 131–140.
13. Blocker Jack S. Jr, “Consumption and Availability of Alcoholic Beverages in the United States, 1863–1920,” Contemporary Drug Problems21(1994): 631–666.
15. Kyvig David E., Explicit and Authentic Acts: Amending the US Constitution, 1776–1995 (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1996), 216–218. Creation of a national income tax also provided an alternative source of revenue for the federal government, thereby freeing Congress from reliance on liquor excise taxes. Donald J. Boudreaux and A.C. Pritchard, “The Price of Prohibition,” Arizona Law Review 10 (1994): 1–10.
16. Kerr, Organized for Prohibition, 139–147.
17. Blocker, Retreat From Reform, 228; Kerr, Organized for Prohibition, 140–141; Thomas R. Pegram, “Prohibition,” in The American Congress: The Building of Democracy, ed. Julian E. Zelizer (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2004), 411–427.
18. National Institute for Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), “Apparent per Capita Ethanol Consumption for the United States, 1850–2000,” available at http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/databases/consum01.htm, accessed August 2004; Blocker, “Consumption and Availability,” 652. All statistics given in this article for per capita consumption are for US gallons of ethanol per capita of population 15 years of age and older prior to 1970 and population 14 years of age and older thereafter.
19. Dills Angela K. and Jeffrey A. Miron, “Alcohol Prohibition and Cirrhosis,” American Law and Economics Review6 (2004): 285–318, esp. Figure 3; E. M. Jellinek, “Recent Trends in Alcoholism and in Alcohol Consumption,” Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 8 (1947): 40.
20. Blocker, American Temperance Movements, 117.
21. Timberlake, Prohibition and the Progressive Movement.
22. LaForge Robert G., Misplaced Priorities: A History of Federal Alcohol Regulation and Public Health Policy [PhD dissertation] (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 1987), 56.
23. Kerr, Organized for Prohibition, 181–184.
24. Szymanski, Pathways to Prohibition; LaForge, Misplaced Priorities; Kerr, Organized for Prohibition, 181–184.
25. Pegram, Battling Demon Rum, 144–147.
26. Blocker, American Temperance Movements, 118; Kyvig, Explicit and Authentic Acts, 224.
27. Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1928 (Washington, DC: US Bureau of the Census, 1928), 767.
28. Statistics Concerning Intoxicating Liquors (Washington, DC: Bureau of Industrial Alcohol, US Treasury Department, 1930), 3, 60, 64, 72.
29. Mulligan William H. Jr, “Coors, Adolph, Brewing Company,” in Alcohol and Temperance in Modern History, vol 1, 174; Mulligan, “Miller Brewing Company,” in Alcohol and Temperance in Modern History, vol 2, 418; Amy Mittelman, “Anheuser-Busch,” in Alcohol and Temperance in Modern History, vol 1, 43–45.
30. Even the death of slavery, although it put an end to the domestic slave trade, did not hinder cotton culture.
31. Pegram, Battling Demon Rum, 149.
32. Miron Jeffrey A. and Jeffrey Zwiebel, “Alcohol Consumption During Prohibition,” American Economic Review81 (1991): 242–247; Dills and Miron, “Alcohol Prohibition and Cirrhosis”; NIAAA, “Apparent per Capita Ethanol Consumption.” The figure is for 1935.
33. Meers John R., “The California Wine and Grape Industry and Prohibition,” California Historical Society Quarterly46 (1967): 19–32.
34. Clark Norman H., Deliver Us From Evil: An Interpretation of American Prohibition (New York: W. W. Norton, 1976), 145–146; Powers, Faces Along the Bar, 234–236; Duis, The Saloon, 274–303; Pegram, Battling Demon Rum, 163.
35. Room Robin, “ ‘A Reverence for Strong Drink’: The Lost Generation and the Elevation of Alcohol in American Culture,” Journal of Studies on Alcohol45 (1984): 540–546; John C. Burnham, Bad Habits: Drinking, Smoking, Taking Drugs, Gambling, Sexual Misbehavior, and Swearing in American History (New York: New York University Press, 1993), 34–38; Paula Fass, The Damned and the Beautiful: American Youth in the 1920’s (New York: Oxford University Press, 1977); Murdock, Domesticating Drink, 93–94. [PubMed]
36. Pegram Thomas R., “Kluxing the Eighteenth Amendment: The Anti-Saloon League, the Ku Klux Klan, and the Fate of Prohibition in the 1920s,” in American Public Life and the Historical Imagination, ed. Wendy Gamber, Michael Grossberg, and Hendrik Hartog (Notre Dame, Ind: University of Notre Dame Press, 2003), 240–261.
37. Murdock, Domesticating Drink.
38. Ibid, 134–158; Kenneth D. Rose, American Women and the Repeal of Prohibition (New York: New York University Press, 1996).
39. Burnham, Bad Habits, 34–49; Room, “A Reverence for Strong Drink”; Room, “The Movies and the Wettening of America: The Media as Amplifiers of Cultural Change,” British Journal of Addiction 83 (1988): 11–18; David E. Kyvig, Repealing National Prohibition (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979), 28–29.
40. Sinclair Andrew, Prohibition: The Era of Excess (New York: Harper & Row, 1962), 211–212, 220–230; Kyvig, Repealing National Prohibition, 30.
41. Murphy Paul L., “Societal Morality and Individual Freedom,” in Law, Alcohol, and Order: Perspectives on National Prohibition, ed. David E. Kyvig (Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1985), 67–80; Rayman L. Solomon, “Regulating the Regulators: Prohibition Enforcement in the Seventh Circuit,” in Law, Alcohol, and Order, 81–96.
42. Spinelli Lawrence, Dry Diplomacy: The United States, Great Britain, and Prohibition (Wilmington, Del: Scholarly Resources, 1989).
43. Kyvig, Repealing National Prohibition, 147–168; Alan P. Grimes, Democracy and the Amendments to the Constitution (Lexington, Mass: Lexington Books, 1978), 109–112.
44. Kerr, Organized for Prohibition, 222.
45. Hamm, Shaping the Eighteenth Amendment, 266–269; Pegram, Battling Demon Rum, 156–160.
46. Kyvig, Repealing National Prohibition.
47. Kerr, Organized for Prohibition, 279; Hamm, Shaping the Eighteenth Amendment, 269; Pegram, Battling Demon Rum, 175–176.
48. Boudreaux and Pritchard, “Price of Prohibition,” 5–10.
49. Sinclair, Prohibition, 387–399.
50. Rubin Jay L., “The Wet War: American Liquor Control, 1941–1945,” in Alcohol, Reform and Society: The Liquor Issue in Social Context, ed. Jack S. Blocker Jr (Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1979), 235–258.
51. NIAAA, “Apparent per Capita Ethanol Consumption.”
52. Dills and Miron, “Alcohol Prohibition and Cirrhosis,” Figure 3.
53. Blocker, American Temperance Movements, 138. The United States continues to be distinguished among societies where temperance ideology was once influential by its high proportion of abstainers. Michael E. Hilton, “Trends in US Drinking Patterns: Further Evidence From the Past 20 Years,” British Journal of Addiction 83 (1988): 269–278; Klaus Mäkelä, Robin Room, Eric Single, Pekka Sulkunen, and Brendan Walsh, A Comparative Study of Alcohol Control, vol 1 of Alcohol, Society, and the State (Toronto: Addiction Research Foundation, 1981), 21–24.
54. Kurtz Ernest, Not-God: A History of Alcoholics Anonymous, rev ed (Center City, Minn: Hazelden, 1991); Bruce H. Johnson, The Alcoholism Movement in America: A Study in Cultural Innovation [PhD dissertation] (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1973); Blocker, American Temperance Movements, 139–154.
55. Herd, “Ideology, History and Changing Models of Liver Cirrhosis Epidemiology”; Katcher, “Post-Repeal Eclipse in Knowledge”; Philip J. Pauly, “How Did the Effects of Alcohol on Reproduction Become Scientifically Uninteresting?” Journal of the History of Biology29 (1996): 1–28. [PubMed]
56. Blocker, American Temperance Movements, 136.
57. Warsh Cheryl Krasnick, “Smoke and Mirrors: Gender Representation in North American Tobacco and Alcohol Advertisements Before 1950,” Histoire sociale/Social History31 (1998): 183–222 (quote from p. 220); Lori Rotskoff, Love on the Rocks: Men, Women, and Alcohol in Post-World War II America (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002), 194–210; Burnham, Bad Habits, 47.
58. Byers Stephen R, “Home, as Drinking Site,” in Alcohol and Temperance in Modern History, vol 1, 296.
59. Murdock, Domesticating Drink.
60. LaForge, Misplaced Priorities.
61. Levine Harry Gene, “The Birth of American Alcohol Control: Prohibition, the Power Elite, and the Problem of Lawlessness,” Contemporary Drug Problems12 (1985): 63–115; David Fogarty, “From Saloon to Supermarket: Packaged Beer and the Reshaping of the US Brewing Industry,” Contemporary Drug Problems 12 (1985): 541–592.
62. Burnham John C., “New Perspectives on the Prohibition ‘Experiment’ of the 1920’s,” Journal of Social History2 (1968): 51–68; Clark, Deliver Us From Evil, 145–158; Kerr, Organizing for Prohibition, 276–277; Tyrrell, “US Prohibition Experiment,” 1406.
63. Murdock, Domesticating Drink, 170.
64. Burnham, Bad Habits, 293–297; Jeffrey A. Miron, “An Economic Analysis of Alcohol Prohibition,” Journal of Drug Issues 28 (1998): 741–762; Harry G. Levine and Craig Reinarman, “From Prohibition to Regulation: Lessons From Alcohol Policy to Drug Policy,” Milbank Quarterly 69 (1991): 461–494.
65. Morone James A., Hellfire Nation: The Politics of Sin in American History (New Haven, Conn: Yale University Press, 2003), 343.
66. Tyrrell, “US Prohibition Experiment,” 1407; Robin Room, “Alcohol Control and Public Health,” Annual Review of Public Health5 (1984): 293–317.
Essay on The Backlash of Prohibition
801 Words4 Pages
Although the temperance movement was concerned with the habitual drunk, its primary goal was total abstinence and the elimination of liquor. With the ratification of the 18th Amendment to the Constitution, the well-organized and powerful political organizations, utilizing no holds barred political tactics, successfully accomplished their goal. Prohibition became the law of the land on January 16, 1920; the manufacturing, importation, and sale of alcohol was no longer legal in the United States. Through prohibition, America embarked on what became labeled “the Nobel Experiment.” However, instead of having social redeeming values as ordained, prohibition had the opposite effect of its intended purpose, becoming a catastrophic failure.…show more content…
Unlike salons, the speakeasies welcomed women and the women came, thus creating additional customers for alcohol. The speakeasies needed a steady supply of alcoholic beverages, and with no breweries or distillers to supply them, organized crime stepped in to fill the void. Hence, by alcohol becoming illegal, a free market no longer existed, which lead to a restraint of trade. As most, black-market offerings. Illegal liquor offered huge profits as well as heated competition. As with almost all black market offerings, illegal liquor generated huge profits and heated competition. As example, gangsters such as Al Capon gunned down their competition, thus enabling them to have a monopoly on liquor sales. (three changes are needed). In actuality, many gangsters died while defending free enterprise. Capone, once his competition was eliminated, could set the prices as high as he wished since there was no competition in Chicago. In one year, Al Capon made Sixty million dollars in liquor sales alone due to outrageously inflated alcohol prices. With capacious amounts of money earned through the sale of illegal liquor. Capone managed to bribe judges, police, and the important politicians of Chicago. Reportedly, eighty to ninety percent of the city’s police force was on his payroll. Corruption of public officials ran rampant. For example, with the profits Capone earned he was able to insure the election