Bribery And Corruption Essay In Pakistan

Corruption in Pakistan is widespread,[1] particularly in the government and lower levels of police forces.[2] Transparency International's 2017 Corruption Perception Index ranks the country 117th place out of 180 countries[3] Pakistan saw a significant improvement in its statistics in 2013 when its ranking improved by 12 indices compared to its previous rankings[4] – 139 out of 174 in 2012,[5] 134 out of 182 in 2011,[6][7] 143 out of 178 in 2010,[8] and 139 out of 180 in 2009.[9]

While Pakistan has had a problem of corruption since it came into being. The change in regimes between military and civilian institutions due to three different successful coups have also weakened the anti-corruption institutions. This may also be noted that a significant improvement in corruption in Pakistan has not occurred either in civilian government or in military government. Recently, Pakistan has been doing better in eradicating corruption than previous years but still there's a long road ahead. In 2017, Pakistan's prime minister Nawaz Sharif was declared ineligible to hold office by supreme court of Pakistan according to the constitution of Pakistan due to corruption and illegal money stashed abroad by him which surfaced through the famous Panama Papers.

There is a growing need to reform accountability and anti-corruption policies at higher levels within the state government.[11]

Brief history[edit]

"Corruption is a curse in India and amongst Muslims, especially the so-called educated and intelligentsia. Unfortunately, it is this class that is selfish and morally and intellectually corrupt. No doubt this disease is common, but amongst this particular class of Muslims it is rampant."

— Pakistan founder Jinnah's letter to Ispahani,
6 May 1945[12]

The Dominion of Pakistan was created as a result of the Pakistan Movement in 1947. Upon gaining independence, Pakistan inherited a strong bureaucracy and army from the British Raj. There has since been no major change in this bureaucratic set up since it was first implemented by British, albeit reforms were proposed by the Musharraf regime in 2007. This has led many to speculate that "corruption has seeped into the higher echelons of bureaucracy" where "corruption cases are [mostly] reported against irregular and ex-cadre appointments".[13] It was by the late 1960s that the bureaucracy started being portrayed as an "instrument of oppression".[14] In multiple reports published by the World Bank, the Pakistani bureaucracy was seen as being rife with corruption, inefficient and bloated in size with an absence of accountability and resistant to change.[15][16][17][18]

Bureaucracy and secession of East Pakistan: 1954–1971[edit]

The bureaucratic influence was strong in the western provinces of Pakistan while the eastern province retained a majority of the population.[19] On 22 November 1954, bureaucratic administrators moved a resolution to merge the four western provinces into a single unit called West Pakistan. This led to public outcry in East Pakistan who felt that they were being misrepresented and systematically marginalised by the land-owning Punjabi Muslim elites who enjoyed higher bureaucratic positions at the time.[20] This led to the secession of East Pakistan into the separate nation state of Bangladesh and lay witness to the corrupt malpractices of the Punjabi elite in West Pakistan. Punjabis argued that East Pakistan's majority was a consequence of the high percentage of Bengali Hindus in the province[21] who were not involved in the state's decision-making processes. Thus, the Punjabi landowners remained largely unrepentant of their desires to "[secure] their own hegemony" leading to the loss of the eastern province in 1971.[22][23]

Nationalisation politicises economic planning: 1973–1977[edit]

After Zulfikar Ali Bhutto came into power in 1973, he introduced a planned economic system to revitalise the stagnant economy. This led to the introduction of the nationalisation programme bringing entire private industrial corporations under the government ownership.[24] In 1974, Bhutto cancelled the fourth five-year plans bypassing the recommendations of the Planning Commission, focusing entirely on broadening government control over private business enterprises. In doing so, Bhutto's government began the politicisation of economic planning.

Political interference opened doors for corrupt political practices to seep into the nation's economic planning processes. The nationalisation programme badly affected the reputation of the Pakistan Peoples Party. Accumulated losses of up to Rs 254 million were reported with several instances of over-staffing and inefficient productivity in heavy mechanical industries.[25] By 1976, the state had been hijacked by group and individuals trying to accumulate wealth by redistributing resources from public enterprises to private individuals. Public enterprises "became a device to extend political patronage to those that the regime favoured, to pay political debts, or to accumulate power".[26]

Denationalisation and political favouritism: 1978–1988[edit]

Bhutto's nationalisation programme lost its appeal towards the end of his government's term and the demand for denationalisation gained more currency. The successive government of military chief and presidentMuhammad Zia-ul-Haq released a whitepaper that led to the creation of a commission under Pakistan Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation (PICIC) to reverse earlier nationalisation efforts.[27] Not much was achieved in this regard and only three industries, including future prime minister Nawaz Sharif's conglomerate Ittefaq Group of Industries, were ever denationalised and returned to their owners. Many argue that Sharif was favoured in this process because he was a political protégé of the military dictator at the helm.[28][29]

Unprecedented political corruption: 2008–2013[edit]

In 2012, Transparency International (TI) calculated that Pakistan had lost more than Rs 8.5 trillion (US$ 94 billion) in corruption, tax evasion and bad governance in the PPP-led coalition government from 2008 to 2013, and from 2013 to 2017 while Nawaz Sharif in power have severe allegations of corruption. Adil Gillani, an advisor for TI Pakistan observed that if Pakistan checks the menace of corruption and ensures good governance, it would not require a single penny from the outside world. The 2008–2013 PPP-led coalition government is criticised as being the most corrupt in the country's history.[30] The free and powerful local media in Pakistan exposed various cases of corruption during the government's tenure including cases of bribery and corruption in government-owned enterprises like Pakistan International Airlines[31] and Pakistan Railways.[32]

On 29 March 2012, a civilian resident of Johar Town Lahore, Tariq Ahmed, filed a court petition in the Lahore High Court, seeking to hear the case of disqualification of prime ministerYousaf Raza Gillani.[33] The plea was filed in the High Court in which the petitioner took the stance that "Fauzia Gillani— spouse of prime minister Gillani received loans of millions of rupees from the Agriculture Development Bank Ltd (ADB) and the National Bank of Pakistan for the two mega-corporations owned by the Gillani family of which Fauzia Gillani served both megacorporations as executive director. None of the loans of millions of rupees were paid back to the banks.[33] When the disqualification petition was put to rest by the ruling of the Speaker of the National AssemblyDr Fehmida Mirza citing that the petition did not hold ground, Gillani was convicted on the charges of Contempt of Court. Gillani became Pakistan's first prime minister to be convicted while holding office[34] and was later sentenced and disqualified. Gillani is prudently criticised for a prolonged era of stagflation, in which fundamental economic problems were ignored, government was mismanaged and corruption was endemic.

Anti-corruption efforts[edit]

Prevention of Corruption Acts: 1947, 1950 and 1958[edit]

The Prevention of Corruption Act, 1947 implemented in the Dominion of Pakistan was enacted to make effective provisions for the prevention of bribery and corruption of public servants, particularly in the bureaucratic administration. The autonomous Princely State of Bahawalpur adopted its own version of the act, namely the Bahawalpur Prevention of Corruption Act, 1950.

In 1955, an accord was signed between Nawab Sadeq Mohammad Khan V and Lt Gen Ghulam Muhammad Malik which made the state of Bahawalpur a part of the province of West Pakistan. This geopolitical change meant that the original act needed amendments to include Bahawalpur and other regions which were originally left out of the act. Subsequently, in October 1958, an ordinance was passed to extend the act to the whole of the province of West Pakistan – this is known as the Prevention of Corruption Act (West Pakistan Extension) Ordinance, 1958. This ordinance extended the scope of the original to the districts of Karat, Kharan, Makran and Lasbela and also repealed the Bahawalpur Prevention of Corruption Act, 1950.

National Accountability Bureau Ordinance, 1999[edit]

On 16 November 1999, Ordinance XIX was passed which later came to be known as the National Accountability Bureau Ordinance. It called for the establishment of the National Accountability Bureau (NAB) as an autonomous federal institution building efforts to combat cases of corruption, financial crimes and economic terrorism in Pakistan. According to the ordinance, NAB was granted authority to launch investigations, conduct inquiries, and issue arrest warrants against individuals suspected in financial mismanagement, terrorism, corruption in private, state, defence and corporate sectors), and direct such cases to accountability courts. Individuals convicted under the National Accountability Bureau Ordinance are prohibited from holding political office for ten years.[35]

Provincial legislation against corruption[edit]

The provincial governments of Pakistan are responsible for legislations in their respective provinces and since 2013, there has been several legislative efforts against corruption, primarily in the provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab. Following is a list of recent anti-corruption legislations:

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa anti-corruption legislations[edit]

The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Right to Information Bill was passed in the provincial assembly on 31 October 2013. It was enacted throughout the province by the Governor of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa on 4 November 2013 as the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Right to Information Act, 2013.[36] The legislation makes way for provisions that add transparency to the various functions and departments of the government. It gives the citizens of the province the right to access any information or record held by a public body, except for the information that is sensitive to the security of the state.

Role of mainstream and social media[edit]

Mainstream media[edit]

Before 2002, the electronic media was entirely dominated by state-owned institutions like Pakistan Television Corporation and Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation. This monopoly was thwarted, when the Musharraf regime regulated the electronic media allowing for private television channels to be operated independently. Since the liberalisation of the electronic media in 2002, it has served as a major force in exposing corruption-related cases and scams.

Following are a few of the major corruption scams and scandals reported and exposed in the mainstream Pakistani media:

  • Rental Power Projects (RPP) scam: In 2006, the media reported on a case involving several instances of bribery in the Rental Power Projects (RPP) where top-level ministers were involved. Former prime minister Raja Pervez Ashraf was also allegedly involved in these cases of corruption but was later cleared by the NAB. His involvement in this case earned him the nickname "Raja Rental".[37]
  • PMDC fake registrations: In 2010, Dr Ahmad Nadeem Akbar, Registrar of the Pakistan Medical and Dental Council had cancelled fake registrations done by some PM&DC officials and had dismissed them from service as they were found to issuing fake registration of medical professionals, allowing for inexperienced personnel to take up important positions in medicine and play with lives of public.The Islamabad High Court in July 2014 and earlier the Supreme Court had upheld his actions and have ordered high power inquiries by NAB in this regard against culprits nominated by Dr Ahmad Nadeem Akbar[38] Once this negligence was reported in the media, the Anti-corruption and Crime Wing of the Federal Investigation Agency took action and identified fake registrations for 40 doctors and 19 medical colleges. The case of registration of 19 medical colleges in one day was investigated by Honourable Justice Shabbar Raza Rizvi and report points towards corruption by the PM&DC Executive Committee member Dr Asim Hussain and Prof Massod Hameed Khan and the employees of the Federal Ministry. As of 2013, FIA had identified about 150 probable instances of fake registrations.[39]
  • Mismanagement of state-owned institutions: Pakistan's flagship airline Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) was reported to have been mismanagement by the executive authorities giving rise to a corrupt culture of bribery. Corruption in PIA led to losses of around US$ 500 million.[31] Similarly, massive financial losses were reported for Pakistan Railways caused by embezzlement.[32]
  • Hajj corruption case: Media reported on an ongoing corruption scandal involving federal ministers extorting illegal payouts from travel agents involved in fleecing Hajj pilgrims to Saudi Arabia.[40] The Minister of Science and Technology, Azam Khan Swati, identified and named the Minister of Religious Affairs, Hamid Saeed Kazmi, as being responsible for giving out these illegal orders. He revealed that he had already warned the prime minister about the scandal thereby making several leading members of the parliament accessory to these criminal offences.[41]
  • OGRA scam: One Adnan Khwaja brother-in-law of PPP Secretary-General Punjab was appointed as Chairman who was instrumental in the scam. The OGRA scam case is sub-judice and the ex-Chairman is being prosecuted but at snails's pace.
  • NATO containers case: Media reported on 40 NATO containers that went missing on their way to the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan. It was later identified that the missing containers carried cargo that was considered contraband in Pakistan, including liquor to be sold in Pakistan.[42]
  • Pakistan Steel Mills scam: The mainstream media reported a major scam in the Pakistan Steel Mills involving Rs 26.5 billion. Once the scam was reported, the FIA initially took action but their progress turned sluggish due to which the Supreme Court issued a contempt of court notice to the interior ministerRehman Malik for hindering and interfering with the investigation.[43]
  • NICL corruption case: The National Insurance Company Limited scandal was first reported in the media in 2012 involving the purchase of 10 acres of land in Karachi by the company at "an exorbitant price" and the transfer of millions of rupees from the account of Zafar Salim, a cousin of the land seller Khwaja Akbar Butt into the joint accounts of Makhdoom Muhammad Ameen Faheem, his wife and his son.[44][45]
  • Ephedrine quota case: The Ephedrine quote case was a scandal involving prime ministerYousaf Raza Gillani's son, Ali Musa Gillani, who pressure officials of the Ministry of Health into allocating a quota (worth Rs 70 billion) of controlled chemical ephedrine to two different Multan-based pharmaceutical companies.[46]
  • The mediagate scandal: It was reported that Chief Justice of PakistanIftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry's son had allegedly taken money from Malik Riaz Hussain, a real-estate tycoon, to persuade courts to give decisions in favour of the latter. Renowned columnist and anchorperson Javed Chaudhry observed that the case against Malik Riaz proved that the media can hold itself and the judiciary accountable. He further added that this case along with the case for missing persons effectively establish the credibility and impartiality of media's fight against corruption.[47]

Social media[edit]

In the wake of 2013 elections, massive electoral rigging was exposed through first-hand accounts of several members of the public via social networking websites. Specialised websites were set up to publish and archive material exposing corrupt malpractices throughout the many polling stations serving several constituencies, e.g., dhandli.com. Several leaked videos of persons caught in the act of rigging the polls went viral and caught the eye of the mainstream media becoming topics of discussion in days to follow.[48] Even before the elections, social media served as an effective tool to hold the nation's to-be-leaders "accountable" for various issues like corruption and education.[49]

Citizen journalism is emerging as a growing phenomenon and social media is being touted in Pakistan as an important tool that can be used to strengthen democracy.[50] Adding to the mix, several prominent politicians have moved to the likes of Twitter to gather support and get prospective voters on board and analysts think that this can lead to a better and direct accountability of political leaders. Social media has also proved effective in identifying corruption in mainstream media,[51] particularly in the case of the mediagate scandal.

Corruption by sector[edit]

Judiciary[edit]

See also: Judiciary of Pakistan

In 2002, in a report titled "Nature and Extent of Corruption in the Public Sector", Transparency International (TI) Pakistan reported that the highest amounts of bribery were spent on people affiliated with the judiciary.[52] Later in 2010, TI Pakistan presented a breakdown of the various actors in the judicial system involved in corruption. A majority of the participants reported that they, or someone in their household, has been subjected to an act of corruption while interacting with someone from the judiciary. When asked of the actors involved, 33.62% people said court employees, 23.73% said public prosecutors, 14.12% said witnesses, 12.43% said judges, 8.19% said opponent lawyer, 4.52% said magistrates while 3.39% mentioned others.[53]

In a 2011 survey, TI Pakistan identified judiciary as the most corrupt institution in Pakistan alongside police.[54] Nevertheless, with the proceedings of some high-impact corruption cases against government officials, including the prime minister, the Supreme Court demonstrated its positive role in tackling corruption. Where the apex court was being hailed for its anti-corruption efforts in 2013,[55] Mehmoodul Hassan, a member of the Sindh Bar Council, alleged that nepotism and corruption were still "rampant" in the lower judiciary, particularly high courts and the lower courts, where people were unlawfully promoted within the judiciary.[56]

Education[edit]

See also: Education in Pakistan

In the 2010, TI Pakistan reported that about 23.7% of those surveyed received admission in educational institutions through non-normal and alternate procedures.[57] One of the biggest problems identified in the country is the presence of a non-uniform educational system.[58] The private sector actively encourages western educational models such as the General Certificate of Secondary Education using this to justify unaffordable fees they charge ordinary citizens.[59] Finding gain in such enterprises, the elite class amongst politicians, technocrats, bureaucrats and businessmen usually capitalise in this venture. These attitudes can also explain the deteriorating standards in the public sector educational institutes.[60] On the other hand, state-owned public schools face several challenges including poor management and governance, and incompetence of consecutive governments in the education sector. Further factors for failing standards in state-run institutions include lack of funding, non-utilisation by elite classes, appointments of under-qualified faculty.

For a brief time during the regime of Pervez Musharraf, Pakistan received unprecedented investments in its higher-education sector – this funding faltered with the arrival of Zardari's government after 2008.[61] In 2011, Dr Syed Abdul Aziz, director of Hamdard Institute of Education and Social Sciences declared education as one of the most corrupt sectors in Pakistan.[62] According to 2013 findings by Transparency International, factor that contribute to this corrupt culture in the sector include embezzlement of development funds allocated by the government, thousands of ghost schools that appear only on paper, bribes taken to sell confidential material to candidates, poor or under-utilisation of funds and an inertia to change on the behalf of the education ministry.[63]

Health care[edit]

See also: Health care in Pakistan

In 2010, 42% of surveyed individuals reported gaining access to hospital services by a method other than standard admission, and 48% reported either having to pay additional costs for essential services or being forced to utilize the services of a designated affiliate. Of the respondents who were asked to identify which parties orchestrated the corrupt acts, 61% reported hospital staff, 25% reported doctors, and 13% reported nurses.[64]

Police and law enforcement[edit]

See also: Law enforcement in Pakistan

Corruption is found to be commonplace in the lower levels of police.[65] Police was observed as the most corrupt sector in a 2013 survey by Transparency International (TI).[66] This situation has persisted since the graft watchdog's July 2010 survey,[67] in which it was noted that the major cause for corruption in this sector was due to a lack of accountability and merit, and low salaries.[65] Payment of bribes in order to escape and avoid charges was also commonplace; 31% of 4,224 respondents reported paying bribes to the police.[64] Citizen journalists upload instances of police officials taking bribes on social networking and video sharing websites like YouTube.[68][69]

Ordinary citizens face challenges in reporting instances of corruption they encounter with the police. In 2005, Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz ordered an investigation into claims by a 23-year-old woman who alleged that, in retaliation for attempting to reveal police corruption, police falsely detained her for fifteen days and raped her.[70]

Public utilities[edit]

Further information: Electricity sector in Pakistan

As of 2002, 96% of surveyed individuals reported corruption issues with electrical utility officials during the past year.[71] The most common types of corruption were billing related. Some consumers admitted to illegally reducing their utility bills, while others reported being harassed with inflated bills intended to solicit bribes. Out of the pool of corruption-affirmative respondents, 71% reported that money was "demanded directly by the actor".[71]

Sports corruption[edit]

See also: Pakistan cricket spot-fixing scandal

In August 2010, reporters from News of the World orchestrated a sting operation which was able to identify three Pakistani cricket players – Salman Butt, Mohammad Asif and Mohammad Amir – and a bookmaker Mazhar Majeed of being complicit in a row over spot-fixing in the fourth England-Pakistan test match at Lord's.[72] The cricketers each received 30 months, one year and six months jail term respectively while the bookmaker received two years and eight months jail term in a verdict issued by the Southwark Crown Court on November 3, 2011.[73][74][75][76] Following these events, on 15 November 2011, the chairman of the Pakistan Cricket Board, Zaka Ashraf established an anti-corruption unit to prevent players from becoming involved in illegal betting practices.[77]

Taxation[edit]

Further information: Taxation in Pakistan

According to the 2002 study, 99% of 256 respondents reported facing corruption of taxation. Furthermore, 32% of respondents reported paying bribes to have their tax assessment lowered, and nearly 14% reported receiving fictitious tax assessments until a bribe was paid.[71]

See also[edit]

Recommended reading[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^Rose-Ackerman (1997, p. 4)
  2. ^US Department of State (2011, p. 1)
  3. ^"Corruption Perception Index 2017". 
  4. ^"Corruption index: Pakistan's global ranking improves by 12 spots". The Express Tribune. 3 December 2013. Retrieved 2013-12-24. 
  5. ^Transparency International (2012)
  6. ^Transparency International (2011)
  7. ^"Pakistan less corrupt, according to global corruption list". The Express Tribune. 1 December 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-10. 
  8. ^Transparency International (2010)
  9. ^Transparency International (2009)
  10. ^Beyg, Saranjam (7 July 2013). "Tackling corruption". Dawn. Retrieved 2013-12-24. 
  11. ^"Full text of the NICL Judgement of the Supreme Court"(PDF). Supreme Court of Pakistan. Retrieved 2013-12-25. 
  12. ^Siddiqi, M A (25 April 2011). "A guide to the CSS: Want to change Pakistan? Try joining the government as an honest bureaucrat". The Express Tribune. Retrieved 2013-12-24. 
  13. ^Shafqat (1999, p. 995)
  14. ^World Bank (1983)
  15. ^World Bank (1985)
  16. ^World Bank (1993)
  17. ^World Bank (1997)
  18. ^Ziring (2003, p. 71)
  19. ^Ahmad (2001)
  20. ^Ziring (2003, p. 54)
  21. ^Hippler (1997)
  22. ^Rashid, Ahmed (6 September 2010). "Pakistani flood relief must start with fighting corruption". Opinions. The Washington Post. Retrieved 2013-12-24. 
  23. ^Federal Research Division (2004, p. 94)
  24. ^Mohiuddin (2007, pp. 100–150, ch. 2, The Economy of Pakistan, "The Nationalization and Authoritarian Populism Under Zulfikar Ali Bhutto; 1971-1977")
  25. ^Noman (1990, pp. 77–79)
  26. ^Hiro, Dilip (2012). Apocalyptic Realm: Jihadists in South Asia. Yale University Press. Retrieved 2013-12-25. 
  27. ^"Profile: Nawaz Sharif". BBC. 24 September 2013. Retrieved 2013-12-25. 
  28. ^Siddiqui, Taha (17 April 2013). "Pakistan elections: Who are the main candidates for prime minister?". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 2013-12-26. 
  29. ^Abbasi, Ansar (5 February 2005). "Rs 8,500 bn corruption mars Gilani tenure: Transparency". Geo News. Retrieved 2013-12-24. 
  30. ^ ab"$500m corruption in PIA, says PTI". Pakistan Today. 26 February 2012. Retrieved 2013-12-24. 
  31. ^ ab"Railways' 2009-10 audit highlights massive corruption and losses". Pakistan Today. 22 November 2010. Retrieved 2013-12-24. 
  32. ^ ab"LHC seeks assistance from DAG in case against Gilani, family". The Express Tribune. 28 March 2012. Retrieved 2012-12-24. 
  33. ^Iqbal, Nasir (26 April 2012). "Down but not out". Dawn. Retrieved 2013-12-24. 
  34. ^"Pakistan: Country Reports on Human Rights Practices". Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. United States Department of State. 25 February 2004. Retrieved 24 December 2013. 
  35. ^Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Assembly (5 November 2013). "Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Right to Information Act, 2013"(PDF). Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa: Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Retrieved 29 December 2013. 
  36. ^Abbasi, Ansar. "US starts probe into rental power projects scam". The News International. Retrieved 2013-12-25. 
  37. ^Klasra, Rauf. http://www.thenews.com.pk/TodaysPrintDetail.aspx?ID=243517&Cat=2&dt=6/7/2010. Retrieved 2013-12-24. 
  38. ^Wasif, Sehrish (11 July 2013). "PMDC investigation: 40 doctors, 19 medical colleges have fake registrations". The Express Tribune. Retrieved 2013-12-24.
Bhutto introduced the nationalisation programme in order to revitalise the economy but these policies were used by certain individual and groups to accumulate gain.
Yousaf Raza Gillani became the first head of state to be convicted while holding office and later disqualified on charges of loan defaulting.

REASONS OF THE CORRUPTION

The most often used definitions of corruption have taken the place of the clichés from the time When corruption was thought a convention, a well hidden “alternative way of living”.Nowadays Conventions are pointless and associations are direct and clear-cut: a lie, an abuse, a theft, bribe taking, a Speculation, blackmailing. The sides in the corruption process are clearly defined: ''the one offering the bribe and the one taking the bribe''. Vulgarization of corruption itself brings archetypal and pragmatic notions of it. Nowadays corruption is most often interpreted by the general public as a series of interactions:

“They want – I give”, “I want – I get”.

Corruption is a process of decay which can never be eradicated completely from any society. The most important reasons contributing ti this decay are bad interaction between the specialized bodies for combating corruption and the citizens, the extensive prerogatives of public officials, the widespread bureaucracy ,insufficient political will for dealing with corruption, the low remuneration of public officials, lack of effective measures and sanctions, the possibility for public officials to obtain illegal benefit, weaknesses of the legislation, lack of willingness on the part of the citizens to contribute to, the process of combating corruption. So corruption is to be done everywhere. Everyone wants to fulfill their needs or to get success so corrupt ways are used for that so you find corruption on all levels that’s why there are so many reason of corruption.

Low Salaries

The basic reason for corruption is low salaries as everyone is finding a way to better their living standard as much as they can; it’s also a human nature that he has everything more and more. So mostly corruption is to be seen where there are people having fewer salaries they use corrupt ways to achieve the goal. It is true that they do not have any other way to fulfill their wants.

Lack of accountability and regulation:

Corruption is more prevalent because lack of accountability and regulation. If money that the government receives is going in their pockets rather than being spent on the people who need it, on their education, health and so on, then the consequences are obvious that many people don't pay taxes because they don't trust the government to spend it on the people, they think they are corrupt and the money would just disappear. And so this creates a vicious circle. People don't see the government doing anything to help them, so they think it's a waste of time to pay taxes. The government doesn't get any money from taxes and so can't do anything to help people.

Culture:

Corruption on the low-level is systematic and fed by desperation. In many of these nations, it's almost expected that a policeman or clerk will earn a fair amount of income through bribes, so the states pay those workers less based on that assumption. Bribes and the like become a kind of tip. Even in situations where this is not true, there's still the temptation of extra cash, whether necessary to feed one's family. The "every man for himself" attitude in some cultures encourages this.

Corruption prone institutions

Police

According to many people corruption can only thrive in bureaucratic societies or countries where every single matter, law and order is under the control of corrupt government. The reality does not authenticate just this idea. At an "elite" level, corruption is the everywhere. Then, what developing countries are full of, is non-elite corrupt people. Corruption is normally associated with the government, police, legal system and other bodies that control and allocate public resources. The police are responsible for maintaining order and justice in a society. A police department for instance can be compared to other governmental bodies for simple understanding of the term. e.g.: a cop stops a car to make a ticket, but is also willing to accept a small bribe to let it pass (or even stop the car to get a bribe in the first place). Some drivers will also try to bribe the cop, to avoid the ticket. Mostly the same at all administration levels, at any given bureaucrat institution. Of course, virtually all government regulated institutions (police, hospitals, schools, etc) have their employee being overly underpaid, which helps a lot to lead into this. The reason why a policeman for example would accept a bribe to let someone go free is that they are often underpaid and extra cash is always a tempting prospect. The wide consensus across surveys points to the police as being one of the most corrupt institutions in Pakistan. According to the organization Global Integrity appointments in the police force are often based on political considerations. Police officers frequently have conflicts of interest due to personal loyalties and family connections. It is also well known that in Pakistan, influential landlords decide the appointment of law enforcement officers in their area, with police officers acting on their behalf. Unlawful police methods do not solely affect poor people. Businesses also complain that they suffer from extortion by the police, for instance in the form of bogus traffic fines. Basically Police misconduct is a topic of great concern worldwide. However, the causes of police corruption are remarkably different. Understanding the unique political, historical, legal, and economic institutions of a country is essential in identifying the potential for police misconduct. The boundary line between corrupt and non-corrupt activities is quite difficult to define. A police officer who takes advantage of his power and authority for personal and organizational gains can easily be described as a corrupt police officer. The term “police corruption” has been used to describe many activities: bribery; violence and brutality; fabrication and destruction of evidence; racism; and, favoritism. Not only lower ranked officers are involved in such malpractices, but also senior officers, and those ranked below them are involved in organized corruption. The position is best summed up in the words of the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Home Affairs in Pakistan: Today we have a police, which is politicized and Politically polarized. For it has become a pawn in the hands of its masters. In Return, the policemen get political patronage, which has become essential for there Survival.

The Judiciary

The other sector in Pakistan which is seen as notoriously inefficient and corrupt is the judiciary. According to TI Pakistan’s 2006 survey, 96 percent of the people who came in contact with the judiciary encountered corruption and 44 percent of them reported having to pay a bribe to a court official. The judiciary is also viewed as lacking independence from the executive and contributing to a general culture of impunity. According to Global Integrity, the procedure for selecting judges at the national level is not transparent and selection procedures are often made in exchange for political favors. Despite these problems, judges are exempt from oversight and investigations by Pakistan's national anticorruption agency, the National Accountability Bureau. The business community generally lacks confidence in the capacity of the judiciary to enforce rules and laws, and the settlement of disputes often involves paying bribes. For example, the judiciary takes an average of 880 days to settle a business dispute at a cost of 24 percent of the claim the country’s tax and public finance administration has also been affected by corruption. The World Bank’s 2004 Public Expenditure Management report on the country showed widespread collusion between taxpayers and tax officials, a situation that has led to tax evasion and lack of tax compliance In addition, a financial accountability assessment undertaken by the World Bank in 2003 showed that, although good progress had been achieved in public sector accountability, major gaps and weaknesses remain in the accountability chain. These have arisen mainly from low institutional and staff capacity and uneven implementation of reform measures. The report emphasized the urgent need to strengthen financial reporting, to institute adequate controls at all levels of government — especially at the provincial level1 — and to maintain effective tracking of social spending. A more recent report on public sector accounting in Pakistan further shows its public sector accounting and auditing does not comply with international Standards. More attention needs to be paid to summary tables of outstanding public sector accounting and to good reporting and disclosure processes following audits. The high prevalence of corruption in the sectors covered in the national survey suggest that the problem likely cuts across federal, provincial and local administrations since service delivery is divided between different political levels. Moreover, the country is administratively structured in such a way that there are 100 times more junior-level civil servants than senior officers, creating a ready group to engage in the petty abuses currently plaguing Pakistan. However, recent findings suggest that the devolution of government to the local level may provide benefits by increasing the good governance and accountability needed to help fight corruption. (Business Recorder May 25, 2007¬)

According to a survey carried out by Transparency International the corruptions factors are as follows along with their results in terms of percentage.

TI-Survey on Causes of Corruption-Mega & Petty
• Lack of Accountability (31.68%)
• Low salaries (16.54%)
• Monopoly of power (16.43%)
• Discretionary powers (12.61%)
• Lack of transparency (9.97%)
• Power of influential people (4.59%)
• Red Tapism (4.28%) • Others (4.9%)
Source: Government of Pakistan

Now in order to combat them few measures need to be taken are as follows
• Strengthening of Institutions
• Supremacy of Law
• Prevalence of code of conduct
• Proper check and balance on all officials as well as citizens
• Increase in salaries and incentives
• Restoration of judiciary on free basis
• Hiring of new employees on merit rather than beneficiaries
• Proper awareness campaigns need to be formed
• There should be proper ehtesaab for everyone who completes tenure of governance
• Defect positions should be reordered making it into and effect position

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