Chicago Style 16 Essay Format

Chicago style referencing is one of the less popular referencing styles in the academia. Yet, it is still widely used by scholars & researchers all over the world. The basic document explaining the rules & standards of Chicago style is called “The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition”, organization's website is The manual itself is available for sale at online bookstores; however, there is also a great deal of information about this style online. 

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Paper. Use standard white A4 paper (8.5”x11”).

Font. Use a legible font like Times New Roman, size 12.

Margins. Margins should be from 1” to 1.5” inches on all sides.

Page numbering. The title page is not numbered. The next page after the title one starts with ‘1’ in the upper right-hand corner. Arabic numerals are used for page numbers; pages are numbered consecutively.

Title Page

1. Type the title of your paper in UPPER CASE.
2. Place it one-third down from the top of the page, you will need to press Enter 7 times. Center your title.
3. Hit Enter 8 times.
5. Type your first name and last name. Press Enter
6. Type the name of your class. Press Enter
7. Type the current date.

Here is a sample title page arranged according to Chicago Style.

Spacing. Use double space throughout your paper.

Indentation. Every new paragraph should be indented. Press TAB to indent your text.

Citation. There are two major ways of citing your sources: footnote format & endnote format. Some scholars call footnote format Chicago Style 16A, while endnote format is called Chicago Style 16B. Schematically, here is what the Chicago Style looks like:

Footnotes/Endnotes or Author-Date system? Which format is right for me?

The short answer would be: refer to your assignment requirements. If you can’t see it or there is no specific requirement, use the following information to determine correct formatting.

Footnote/ Endnote style is mostly preferred in such branches of science as literature, history, and arts. So, if it applies to you, choose that option.

The author-date style is used in the social sciences, so if you study things like economics, history, law, linguistics, psychology, sociology, international relations, anthropology, communication, education, culture, and couple other socially oriented disciplines, the endnote style is exactly what you want.

Footnote/Endnote Style

Footnote/Endnote style requires the use of superscript numbers following the quote or the information taken from a given book/journal. Footnotes/Endnotes are numbered consecutively and their listing on the bibliography page is not necessarily alphabetical – instead, they are numbered in order of appearance. Every superscript number should have corresponding information about the author & the publication in the footnote section or the bibliography page.

Footnotes VS Endnotes

The major difference between footnotes and endnotes is that footnotes contain information about bibliography at the end of the page (at the footer), while the endnote style implies that information about your books is provided at the very end of your paper, in the bibliography section. Hence their names: footnotes come at the foot of the page, while endnotes are placed at its end.

Author/Date Style

This style is often called the ‘bibliography style’ or ‘Chicago Style 16B’. In its form, it’s very similar to APA or MLA style formatting since it requires the author to cite the author by the last name and provide the year of publication in parentheses.

This style requires no numbering of your sources, in contrast, all of your books, journals, articles should be listed in alphabetical order on a separate page called ‘bibliography’ or ‘references’. Every entry should start with a new line and have the so-called ‘hanging line’ protruding into the margin by 1 inch.

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One of the less popular types of referencing styles today is that of Chicago style referencing. However, it is still used today by many researchers and scholars around the globe. The main document that explains all of the rules and standards for Chicago essay format is that of “The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition”. You can also head over to for additional information on Chicago formatting.

If you experience problems with referencing in Chicago style click here and get professional help!

The manual can often be found at book stores online. Regardless of what type of referencing you might have, you can always turn to private writing sites for the additional help you need in making sure your paper is done just right. Chicago referencing can be a little tricky for some, but you don’t have to stress when you have someone who knows the ins and outs of the formatting process. Private writing sites deal with thousands of papers just like yours. It doesn’t matter if you need an MLA, APA, Chicago or Harvard paper written because we can take care of it for you in no time.


For a Chicago essay, you use standard white A4 paper size 8.5 x 11-inches. Don’t use any coloured paper or ones with fancy designs. Stick with the basic white paper at all times.


Whenever drafting a Chicago essay, you need to go with a font that is easy to read and understand. Go with something like Times New Roman, Arial or Courier. Stick with a standard 12-point font. You don’t want to go too big or too small.


Chicago formatting calls for margins of one-inch to 1.5-inches around the page. Don’t go with something larger or it will end up throwing off your whole paper and causing it to look shorter than what it is.

Page Numbering

With a Chicago essay format, you don’t need to include any page numbers. After your title page, you begin numbering the pages with a ‘1’ in the upper right corner of the page. Use Arabic numerals for all page numbers. Make sure to number all of your pages in consecutive order.

Title Page

The title page is pretty specific in terms of what it should look like and what needs to be included on it. Start out by typing the title of your paper in all upper case letters. Positon the title about one-third of the way down the page. Essentially, you should press the enter key about seven times to get your title where it needs to be. Make sure the title of your page is centred.

Hit the enter key another eight times. Then, type your first and last name. Press the enter key again. type in your class name and hit enter again. Lastly, type the date.


When writing a Chicago essay, you need to stick with double spacing throughout the paper.


Whenever you begin a new paragraph, you need to make sure it is indented. The best way to do this is by pressing the TAB key. This keeps all of your paragraphs uniform in style and creates a nice, even flow throughout.


There are two main ways to cite your sources in Chicago referencing. You can either use endnote or footnote formatting. Many scholars refer to footnote format as Chicago Style 16A. Endnote formatting is often called Chicago Style 16B.

Footnotes/Endnotes or Author-Date System?

How to Choose the Right Format

The best way to determine which type of Chicago referencing to use is to look at what your instructor has requested of you. If you don’t see any specific requirements, you should use the following information to figure out what formatting is best.

Footnote/endnote style is often used in literature, arts and history. Author-date style is often used in economics, law, history, psychology, linguistics, sociology, anthropology, international relations, education, communication, culture and other social disciplines.

Footnote/Endnote Style

With this particular type of Chicago referencing, you would need to use superscript numbers after the information taken from the journal or book. The notes are numbered consecutively and they aren’t in alphabetical order on your bibliography page. They are numbered based on the order they appear in your text. Every superscript needs information about the publication and author on the bibliography page.

Footnotes vs. Endnotes

The big difference between endnotes and footnotes is that a footnote has information for the bibliography at the end of each page, while endnotes come at the conclusion of your paper.

Author-Date Style

This type of Chicago formatting is referred to as Chicago Style 16B. it’s similar to APA and MLA formatting because it requires that the author be cited by last name and the publication year be put in parentheses. No numbers are needed for your sources. Everything is listed in alphabetical order and on the bibliography or references page. All entries begin with a new line and have a hanging indent that protrudes by one-inch.

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